Vaccination generates an immune response as a result of implementing microorganisms or their proteins. However, it was found that our immune system is able to elicit protective mechanisms against cells with abnormality, damages, diseases, and even cancer.
Search for a cure against cancer led researches of anti-cancer vaccines. This area has been called innovative. And it is actively implemented in medical practice. The first state, which allowed the widespread use of a vaccine for cervical cancer among women was Israel.
Operating principle of a cancer vaccine
Biotherapeutic cancer vaccine is efficient in preventing cancer.
Conventional as well as cancer vaccines contribute to production of specific plasma cells with antibodies for each type of infection. For these purposes, weakened forms of antigens are injected into specific way or another pathogen.
Under the influence of vaccines immune system produces a greater number of T-cells that are able to recognize the pathogen and if it appears once more they activate an immune response.
Cancer vaccine created by Israeli scientists activates production of B-cells and “killer” T-cell which are able to recognize and activate body’s defense against a particular type of cancer.
Thus, creating a vaccine against cancer, scientists create a biological response modifier, allowing to restore the ability of protective immunity or to boost its effective work in relation to tumor. So scientists are working to develop therapeutic cancer vaccines (which are able to withstand the disease thathas already begun) and preventive vaccines (reducing risks of cancer).
Link: “Infection – Cancer”
Numerous studies suggest the existence of a link between different types of infection and cancer. According to statistics, 15-25% of all diagnosed tumors were triggered eitherdirectly caused by different types of microorganisms. Research data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer suggests the existence of cancer-causing germs, among them the leading place is occupied by human papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis B. The second promotes developing of liver cancer, the first provokes a whole set of cancer.
As for other pathogens, Epstein-Barr virus leads to lymphoma, herpes – Kaposi’s sarcoma, Helicobacter Pylori – stomach cancer and lymphoma.
Prophylactic vaccines, opposing proliferation of malignant tumors, the growth of which is provoked by human papilloma virus.
US FDA recommended to use two Israeli vaccines, able to withstand two types of human papilloma virus that cause cervical oncology in 70 % of cases: Cervarix and Gardasil. the first vaccine is used to prevent cervical cancer processes of women in the age of 9 – 25 years.
The second is approved for use among young people 9 – 26 years old of both sexes to prevent anal cancer and precancerous conditions of anal area, genital warts. As for women, this vaccine improves immune response against cancers of female genitalia.
The FDA also recommended to use a vaccine against liver cancer. At the moment, they vaccinate newborns in the United States and Israel with this Israeli innovative vaccine.
The vaccine for therapeutic purpose
This type of vaccine is designed to suspend development of cancerous tumors, they contribute to prevention of tumor growths or completely kill it.
Although the creation of therapeutic vaccines is a more difficult task, researches of Israeli scientists succeed. April 2010 a vaccine for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer was invented. This vaccine effectively activates the immune defense and overcomes protection of cancer cells, which makes them easy to destroy.
The use of the vaccine sipuleucel-T Provenge manufactured by Dendreon), can increase life expectancy of men for 4 months. Moreover, modern technologies allow to create a vaccine individually for each patient. This vaccine was the first vaccine curing cancer.
Use of vectors has huge potential in oncology. These vectors are special microorganisms that help to deliver DNA or antigens to specific tissues and organs.
They are effective due to their specific characteristics:
- They trigger an active immune response by transporting more than one antigen;
- They provoke their own immune responses that help to make the overall immune response more effective.
It is important that their use can make vaccines much faster, easier and cheaper than other chemotherapy drugs.